班超

班超第一次到西域的时候,已经是四十岁了,其实对于他来说,人生的前半生并不是十分的如意,先是作为一个普通的小吏抄写书籍,赚取微薄的薪水贴补家用,后来被汉明帝任命他为兰台令史,也就是汉代的国家档案馆的官员,但是史书上记载,:“后坐事免官。”(干了没多久就被免职了。)

就是这样一个很快被免职的职位,也是托了哥哥班固的福,作为校书郎的哥哥的职位有点像皇家图书馆的官员,常常接触到皇帝;一次皇帝问班固:“你弟弟现在在做什么啊?”哥哥班固不好意思的说:“那个不争气的孩子现在在给人抄抄写写赚钱奉养老母亲。”可能是心情好吧,汉明帝任命班超去管档案馆,也许在这位皇帝的心中,既然哥哥是图书馆官员,弟弟去档案馆也无可厚非。

显宗问固:“卿弟安在?”固对:“为官写书,受直以养老母。”帝乃除超为兰台令史。

显然,和一生从文的书生哥哥班固比起来,班超显然不适合这个职位,史书上只记载他以为小过失被免职,但是具体是因为什么却没有确切的说法。

但是显然这次的撤职,对于大汉朝来说,却是天大的兴事。

当时的汉朝,经历了穿越者王莽篡汉的折腾,西汉灭亡,东汉建立,社会经济遭受了严重的破坏,当时人类的生产力十分的有限,恢复元气需要几代人的积累,国家元气大伤,在外交上也就自然趋向保守,已经早没有汉武帝时“犯我者、虽远必诛”的气魄和实力。

而在北方,汉的强敌匈奴却已虎视眈眈,迅速的填补了汉衰退留下的权利真空,特别是在西域诸国—这条带来数不尽财富、瑰宝和文化的沙漠中的黄金通道。

到汉明帝时期,大将窦固帅大军进攻匈奴,而已经四十岁的班超任假司马随军到达哈密,假司马相当于副参谋长,实际上是一个没有实权的官职。

此战大胜,班超在此战中斩杀敌人众多,立下赫赫战功,窦固赏识他的才干,命他带领三十六人出使西域。而这一去,就是整整三十年。

三十年后,这个当初不合格的档案管理员已经收复西域五十国,被朝廷封为侯爵,更被西域诸国尊称为万王之王。

那么在这三十年中,到底发生了什么?

(以下资料来源于中文百科和后汉书、资治通鉴记载。)

班超先到鄯善(今新疆罗布泊西南),匈奴使者也率一百多人也来了。夜间,班超率领将士突袭匈奴使者驻地,以火攻等手段大破之,杀其使者。班超请来了鄯善王,把匈奴使者的首级给他看,鄯善王大惊失色,举国震恐。班超好言抚慰,晓之以理,鄯善王表示愿意归附汉朝。

乃召待胡诈之曰:“匈奴使来数日,今安在乎?”侍胡惶恐,具服其状。超乃闭侍胡,悉会其吏士三十六人,与共饮,酒酣,因激怒之曰:“卿曹与我俱在绝域,欲立大功,以求富贵。今虏使到裁数日,而王广礼敬即废;如令鄯善收吾属送匈奴,骸骨长为豺狼食矣。为之奈何?”官属皆曰:“今在危亡之地,死生从司马。”超曰:“不入虎穴,不得虎子。当今之计,独有因夜以火攻虏,使彼不知我多少,必大震怖,可殄尽也。灭此虏,则鄯善破胆,功成事立矣。”众曰:“当与从事议之。”超怒曰:“吉凶决于今日。从事文俗吏,闻此必恐而谋泄,死无所名,非壮士也!”众曰:“善。”

初夜,遂将吏士往奔虏营。会天大风,超令十人持鼓藏虏舍后,约曰:“见火然,皆当鸣鼓大呼。”余人悉持兵弩夹门而伏。超乃顺风纵火,前后鼓噪。虏众惊乱,超手格杀三人,吏兵斩其使及从士三十余级,余众百许人悉烧死。

班超完成使命,窦固上表奏明班超出使经过和所取得的成就。皇帝正式派班超为使者。窦固认为班超手下的人太少,想给他再增加一些。班超却以为三十六人就够了。

还奏于窦固,固大喜,具上超功效,并求更选使使西域,帝壮超节,诏固曰:“吏如班超,何故不遣而更选乎?今以超为军司马,令遂前功。”超复受使,固欲益其兵,超曰:“愿将本所从三十余人足矣。如有不虞,多益为累。”

班超等人向西域进发,不久,到了于阗(今新疆和田)国。当时,于阗王广德刚刚攻破莎车(今新疆莎车)国,在天山南道称雄,北匈奴派使者驻在于阗,对外说是监护它,实际上掌握着于阗的大权。班超到达于阗后,于阗王对他并不很礼貌,态度颇为冷淡。于阗的巫风兴盛,巫师对于阗王说:“天神发怒了,你们为什么想去归顺汉朝?汉使有一匹嘴黑毛黄的好马,你们赶快把它弄来给我祭祀天神!”于阗王派宰相私来比向班超讨要那匹马,班超早已清楚事情原委,痛快地答应了。但是提出要巫师自己来牵。等到巫师到来后,班超不由分说,将他杀死,并逮捕了私来比,痛打数百皮鞭。把巫师的首级送还于阗王,说明利害,以道义责备他。于阗王早就听说过班超在鄯善国诛杀匈奴使者的作为,因此颇为惶恐,当即下令杀死北匈奴使者,重新归附朝廷,班超重赏了于阗国王和他的臣子,成功镇抚于阗。西域各国因此全都派出王子到朝廷做人质,西域与中央中断了六十五年的关系,至此才恢复。

是时于王广德雄张南道,而匈奴遣使监护其国。超既至于,广德礼意甚疏。且其俗信巫,巫言:“神怒,何故欲向汉?汉使有马,急求取以祠我!”广德遣国相私来比就超请马。超密知其状,报许之,而令巫自来取马。有顷,巫至,超即斩其首;收私来比,鞭笞数百。以巫首送广德,因责让之。广德素闻超在鄯善诛灭虏使,大惶恐,即杀匈奴使者而降。超重赐其王以下,因镇抚焉。于是诸国皆遣子入侍,西域与汉绝六十五载,至是乃复通焉。

此前,匈奴人扶立的龟兹(天山南麓,是当时较强的国家,人口多,且“能铸冶”)倚仗匈奴的势力派兵攻破疏勒(今新疆喀什市)国,杀死国王,另立一龟兹人为疏勒王。公元74年,班超派人劫持了这个王,再把疏勒文武官员全部集中起来,宣布另立原来被杀掉的疏勒国君的侄儿为国王。疏勒平定。

初,龟兹王建为匈奴所立,倚恃虏威,据有北道,攻杀疏勒王,立其臣兜题为疏勒王。

时,龟兹王建为匈奴所立,倚恃虏威,据有北道,攻破疏勒,杀其王,而立龟兹人兜题为疏勒王。

公元75年,焉耆(天山南麓,也是西域国力较强国家)杀死了东汉派去的西域都护陈睦。班超孤立无援,且多国屡屡发兵进攻疏勒。班超联合疏勒拒守。虽然势单力孤,但仍拒守了一年多。

公元76年,朝廷担心班超难以支持,命班超回国。得到这个消息,疏勒举国忧恐。都尉黎弇认为班超一走,疏勒必亡于匈奴,拔刀自刎而死。班超到于阗,于阗国王侯百姓苦苦挽留。班超见状,自知不能东回,便重返疏勒。疏勒有两座城在班超走后,已经重新归降了龟兹。班超捉捕反叛首领,使疏勒复安。

肃宗初即位,以陈睦新没,恐超单危不能自立,下诏征超。超发还,疏勒举国忧恐。其都尉黎弇曰:“汉使弃我,我必复为龟兹所灭耳。诚不忍见汉使去。”因以刀自刎。超还至于窴,王侯以下皆号泣曰:“依汉使如父母,诚不可去。”互抱超马脚,不得行。超恐于窴终不听其东,又欲遂本志,乃更还疏勒。疏勒两城自超去后,复降龟兹,而与尉头连兵。超捕斩反者,击破尉头,杀六百余人,疏勒复安。

公元78年,班超率疏勒等国士兵一万多人,进攻姑墨,并将其攻破,斩首七百级,孤立了龟兹。

建初三年,超率疏勒、康居、于窴、居弥兵一万人攻姑墨石城,破之,斩首七百级。

同年,朝廷任命徐干为代理司马,带领一千人去增援。此后,班超又平息了多起叛乱。

公元84年,汉王朝又派和恭率兵八百增援。到此班超所率兵力达最高,但仍不足两千。

明年,复遣假司马和恭等四人将兵八百谐超,超因发疏勒、于窴兵击莎车。莎车阴通使疏勒王忠,啖以重利,忠遂反从之,西保乌即城。超乃更立其府丞成大为疏勒王,悉发其不反者以攻忠。积半岁,而康居遣精兵救之,超不能下。是时,月氏新与康居婚,相亲,超乃使使多赍锦帛遗月氏王,令晓示康居王,康居王乃罢兵,执忠以归其国,乌即城遂降于超。

公元89年,班超调发于阗等国士兵二万多人,攻投靠匈奴的莎车。龟兹等国发兵五万救援莎车。敌强我弱,班超以调虎离山之计大破敌军,追斩五千余级,大获其马畜财物。莎车投降,威震西域。

明年,超发于窴诸国兵二万五千人,复击莎车。而龟兹王遣左将军发温宿、姑墨、尉头合五万人求之。超召将校及于窴王议曰:“今兵少不敌,其计莫若各散去。于窴从是而东,长史亦于此西归,可须夜鼓声而发。”阴缓所得生口。龟兹王闻之大喜,自以万骑于西界遮超,温宿王将八千骑于东界徼于窴。超知二虏已出,密召诸部勒兵,鸡鸣驰赴莎车营,胡大惊乱奔走,追斩五千余级,大获其马畜财物。莎车遂将,龟兹等因各退散,自是威震西域。

此前(公元87年),大月氏提出要娶汉朝公主为妻。班超拒绝,大月氏王由是怨恨。公元90年夏,大月氏七万兵马,越过帕米尔高原攻打班超。班超兵少,坚壁清野,切断其和龟兹国间通道。大月氏进退无据,只好遣使向班超请罪,班超放他们回国,大月氏国内大震,与汉朝和好如初。

永元二年,月氏遣其副王谢将兵七万攻超。超众少,皆大恐。超譬军士曰:“月氏兵虽多,然数千里逾葱领来,非有运输,何足忧邪?但当收谷坚守,彼饥穷自降,不过数十日决矣。”谢遂前攻超,不下,又抄掠无所得。超度其粮将尽,必从龟兹求救,乃遣兵数百于东界要之。谢果遣骑赍金银珠玉以赂龟兹。超伏兵庶击,尽杀之,持其使首以示谢。谢大惊,即遣使请罪,愿得生归。超纵遣之。月氏由是大震,岁奉贡献。

第二年(91年),龟兹、姑墨、温宿等国皆降。班超废原龟兹王,另立新王。朝廷任命班超为都护,驻扎在龟兹它乾城。

公元94年秋,班超调发各国七万部队,平服了余下没有降服的焉耆等三国。班超另立焉耆新王。 至此,西域五十多个国家都归附了汉王朝。 当时西域人誉“班超是西域的万王之王”。

坐定,超怒诘广曰:“危须王何故不到?腹久等所缘逃亡?”遂叱吏士收广、泛等于陈睦故城斩之,传首京师。因纵兵抄掠,斩首五千余级,获生口万五千人,马畜牛羊三十余万头,更立元孟为焉耆王。超留焉耆半岁,尉抚之。于是西域五十余国悉皆纳质内属焉。

公元95年,朝廷下诏封班超为定远侯,食邑千户。

其以汉中郡南郑之西乡户千封超为定远侯。

公元102年八月,七十一岁的班超获准回国,九月病死,结束了其光辉的传奇人生。

其年九月卒,年七十一。朝廷愍惜焉,使者吊祭,赠赗甚厚。

就这样,班超几乎靠一己之力,几乎在匈奴眼皮底下征服西域五十国。在他在西域三十年内,西域各国以他马首是瞻,凡是敢于反抗汉朝的国家都被消灭,不服教化的国王被罢免杀死,换上听话的人。而这一切,几乎都是班超借力打力一人之力完成,汉给班超最多支持也只有千余人。堪称中国历史上的外交奇迹。

上学的时候,历史课告诉我们,改变历史的是历史规律,而不是人,但是看过班超的故事,我常常在想,如果不是班超这样的奇才,那么汉需要多少军队再能再次控制西域,需要多少战斗多少汉家百姓的血。

班超辉煌的三十年只是历史大河上一朵小小的浪花,但是他天纵英才的身影照亮时代的光芒,即使到今天仍然不灭。

About: 高磊


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